- Current situation in Germany
- Overview of motorways – number of charging stations
- Overview of motorways – average charging capacity
- Development of electric cars
- Development charging columns
- A value reflects the attractiveness of the charging network
- A-value federal states
- A-value top 10 cities
- T-value shows the ratio of electric cars to charging stations
- T-value states
- T-value top 10 cities
- Overall rating top 10 cities
- A-value top 10 cities ranking
- T-value top 10 cities placement
- Total placement Top 10 cities
- Type of charging device
According to the Chancellor, one million electric vehicles should be driving on German roads by 2020. This goal has already been postponed by 2 years to 2022. With the federal government’s “master plan for charging infrastructure”, one million public charging stations and an additional 100.000 fast charging points to be built.
In order to achieve the goal set by the state, the construction of around 2.000 new publicly accessible charging points needed per week. However, only around 200 new charging points are currently being installed in the publicly accessible area, comments VDA President Hildegard Muller. At the same time, between 7 and 10.5 million electric cars should be driving on German roads by 2030.
But what is the current situation on German roads when it comes to electromobility? How many electric cars are currently registered and how many charging stations are there for these electric cars? This evaluation is based on the figures from the Federal Motor Transport Authority and. the Federal Network Agency.
Current situation in Germany
According to the Federal Network Agency, there are 36.492 charging stations (status: 1.2.2021) available in public space. The number of private charging stations and charging stations not made available to the public by companies is not yet recorded. There are currently 136.546 electric cars that want to be refueled with electricity. (Status: 1.1.2020). The distribution shows the density of charging stations in Germany quite well. At the moment, the highest density of charging stations is in the metropolitan areas. The VW plant in Wolfsburg stands out, which alone provides employees and customers with 385 public charging stations.
Overview of motorways – number of charging stations
Looking at the highways. the charging stations at the rest stops, you can see a big difference between East and West Germany. But this also goes hand in hand with the current density of electric cars. In western Germany it is approx. 0.11% per inhabitant, in eastern Germany 0.059% electric cars per inhabitant.
Overview of motorways – average charging capacity
If you look at the average charging capacity on the motorways, it becomes clear that individual rest stops advertise the very high charging capacity of up to 350 kW, but the nationwide average is currently 82 kW.
However, the trend in the construction of charging stations on motorways is pointing upwards. From an average of 48 kW per charging station at service stations installed in 2017, the value rose to an average of 128 kW per charging station at service stations installed in 2020. This is a clear trend towards more powerful fast charging stations.
Development of electric cars
The development of electric cars increases from year to year, but the electric cars still make up a very small proportion compared to the registered vehicles. However, the curve is pointing strongly upwards in all federal states. If one measures the share of electric vehicles in relation to the share of registered vehicles, the following picture emerges. The largest proportion of all registered vehicles can be found in Hamburg, followed by Bavaria and Baden-Wurttemberg. Saxony-Anhalt and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania bring up the rear.
Development charging columns
A similar picture can be seen in the development of charging stations. If you cumulate the charging stations, the strongest increase was in 2019. Bavaria is the leader with 7.801 public charging stations followed by North Rhine-Westphalia with 6.486 and Baden-Wurttemberg with 5.764 charging stations built by February 2021. Among the cities, Berlin leads with 1.253 charging stations just before Hamburg with 1.214 and Bremen with 305.
A value reflects the attractiveness of the charging network
The A value describes the attractiveness of a federal state’s charging network. This value is used to determine the ratio of permitted vehicles to public charging points. The lower this value, the more attractive it is to switch to an electric vehicle.
A-value federal states
The city-state of Hamburg has the lowest value among all federal states with 737, followed by Bremen (1st place).044) and Berlin with 1.219 registered vehicles per charging station. Leaving aside the city-states, Bavaria (1.344), Schleswig-Holstein (1.517) and Lower Saxony (1st.694) the best values. At the end is the Saarland (3rd.990) and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (3.168). Unfortunately, the figures for registered vehicles for 2020 will not be published until August 2021, so only the years 2017-2019 can be shown.
A-value top 10 cities
Based on the 10 most populous cities in Germany (Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt am Main, Stuttgart, Dusseldorf, Leipzig, Dortmund, Essen), which were.1.2020 approx. 10.5% of all registered vehicles in Germany, the following picture emerges for the A value. All values tend to fall, but there are slight differences between the individual cities. Munich (626) forms the city with the best value, followed by Hamburg (737) and Leipzig (1.017). However, one must also bear in mind that these cities do not represent the best A values in Germany. According to the VDA, the district of Regen has the best value with an A value of 310, followed by Wolfsburg (358) and Passau (403). However, the VDA shows the ratio of the car stock of 1.1.2020 compared to the charging points from 5.11.2020, making the result “contaminated”.
T-value shows the ratio of electric cars to charging stations
This calculation takes into account only publicly accessible charging columns. It can be seen that the T-value of some federal states fell or rose from 2017 to 2018. stagnation set in from 2018 to 2019. From 2019 to 2020, the number of EVs purchased grew faster than the expansion of the charging infrastructure, which is why the T-value increased between these years. All T values in the individual federal states are currently below the EU guidelines of 10 electric cars per charging station. Saarland had a relatively high T value in 2017, which is due to the fact that Saarland arrived relatively late or late. only expanded its charging infrastructure network in 2019. The same applies to Baden-Wurttemberg. Here the number of electric vehicles grew faster than the expansion of the infrastructure, which can be seen from the relatively high T value in 2017.
T-value top 10 cities
If you look at the T value, you can see that Stuttgart takes a special role. This is due to the fact that Stuttgart had installed relatively few charging stations by 2019. Only from 2020 has the number of charging stations more than tripled.
If you look at the T-value of the top 10 cities in Germany – excluding Stuttgart – you can see that many cities are showing an upward trend. The picture is similar to that of the federal states. Namely, the number of electric vehicles has increased faster since 2017 than the expansion of charging stations. Nevertheless, all cities – with the exception of Frankfurt am Main and Stuttgart – have a T value below 10 and thus comply with the EU directive.
Overall rating top 10 cities
The A and T values provide good information about the charging situation. Of course, this non-existent charging capacity of the individual charging stations is considered, but the two values can be used to outline an initial trend.
A-value top 10 cities ranking
If one creates a ranking from the A values of the ten most populous cities in Germany, Munich has the best value in 2019, followed by Hamburg and Leipzig. In these cities, the transition to an electric car is most attractive.
T-value top 10 cities placement
If you follow the same principle of the T value and puts the individual cities in a ranking, then Hamburg is clearly followed by food and Leipzig. In these cities, the least electric cars have to share a charging column.
Total placement Top 10 cities
If you combine the two placement of the individual cities, then the change and the subsequent driving / shop in Hamburg is best and simplest. Munich raises strongly in this context and occupies the 2. place. Leipzig is in third place.
Type of charging device
Looking at the overall over 36.000 charging columns or. the type of charging device, so it can be recognized that in 2019 the largest number of charging columns has been built up. The number of fast charging systems (> 22kW) has also increased gradually. The decline in 2020 can most likely be attributed to the current corona pandemic. Nevertheless, Germany is still a long way from having one million charging stations or. 100.000 rapid charging systems, as described in the “Charging Infrastructure Master Plan”.
If you look at the details of the installed charging points, you can see that the average annual installed charging capacity is very volatile and does not follow a clear trend. Only the year 2019 stands out and shows the highest value.
If you go one step further, you can see that the peak in 2019 is due to the charging capacity of the fast charging systems. There was a sharp increase in the installed charging capacity in 2019, which fell again in the following years.
In summary, it can be said that Germany and the individual federal states show a good development in terms of A value and the EU-EU directive of T-value. But it takes a lot of effort to achieve the upcoming goals of 1.000.000 electric vehicles by 2022 or. the provision of 1.000.000 charging stations by 2030. Cities in particular must prepare for a larger number of electric cars and significantly expand their charging infrastructure so that it can withstand the onslaught.
The same applies to motorways. Here, too, the infrastructure must be adapted accordingly so that drivers of electric cars do not switch to a combustion car for long distances. But here the trend in built-in charging capacity is clearly upwards. In rural areas, the situation will probably continue to be one in which cars are charged at home and everyone is self-sufficient. Even small towns and tourist resorts have to prepare and retrofit for a possible onslaught.
The next few years will show how electromobility develops in Germany and whether the ambitious goals can be achieved. In my opinion, Germany must act as a role model for other countries in order to show how the rapid switch to electric cars works.
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