- Sauce potential of battery capacity
- Improvement of the environmental balance sheet
- Battery change stations
- Comparison of different battery technologies
To achieve the climate protection objectives in the transport sector – in particular a striking reduction of CO2 emissions – obviously does not pass a way at the mass introduction of battery-electric powered cars (BEV). The climate balance of the BEV is currently only slightly better than that of conventional cars with internal combustion engine. The main reasons for this are the relatively high greenhouse gas emissions in the production of the drive batteries for the BEV and the greenhouse gas emissions in power generation. Added to this is the environmental impact of raw material production for the batteries. At present, the aim is to continuously improve the environmental balance sheet by further developing the batteries and the associated manufacturing technology as well as by increasing the ecostromancial part of the electricity mix.
There is a simple concept that can significantly improve the environmental balance of battery electrical cars and at the same time can be avoided with the known disadvantages of these cars (low range, long loading times, high acquisition costs) without further developing battery technology or higher Economic roman parts must wait. For this purpose, the cars are equipped with batteries that are suitable for short and medium sections and thus sufficient for the overwhelming part of the daily rides. You can load these at ordinary charging stations for BEV (Z. B. at home or at work). In the event that the car is to be a longer drive, it has a shaft for changeable, standardized battery modules, larger cars could be equipped with several such shafts. These are usually empty, but can be equipped if necessary on a gas station with battery replacement station in a few minutes. Blank modules can be exchanged quickly against charged ones.
- Vehicle platform
- Firmly built-in batteries
- changeable battery module
- Electric motor
- Power electronics
- Control electronics
- Cooling technology
Sauce potential of battery capacity
Due to the technical development, one can assume that in the near future, a conventional BEV standard with a fixed battery for a range of approx. 500 km (equivalent to about 75 kWh in the middle class) will be equipped. However, from relevant statistics can be deduced that a basic range of 200 km for most vehicle users for approx. 95% of your daily trips is sufficient. If you equip the BEV with a fixed battery for this basic range (30 kWh) and allows the use of an additional battery for 300 km range (45 kWh), you need only about the entire vehicle fleet only approx. 50% of the O.G. Battery capacity. Of these are approx. 80% as a permanently installed batteries in the cars and about. 20% used as additional batteries.
Improvement of the environmental balance sheet
In the above estimation of the example of BEV with 75kWh battery, the proposed concept results in a reduction of battery capacity to averaging. 38 kWh per vehicle. In ABB.2, such a vehicle is compared to similar vehicles equipped with other drives. There, the progress expected by 2030 advances in the technical development and the expansion of renewable energies are already considered.
In the direct comparison of the two BEV variants, it can be seen that by the proposed concept in the medium term an additional greenhouse gas reduction of CA. 16% is made possible. At present, the saving effect would be significantly larger, as battery technology and the electric mix available for manufacturing is not yet so environmentally friendly, as expected for 2030.
With regard to consumption of battery-specific raw materials (lithium, kobald, nickel etc.) can be realized that with the same amount, almost twice the number of vehicles can be operated. The problem of environmentally friendly recycling of the remote batteries is also reduced accordingly.
The figure shows for 2030 expected greenhouse gas emissions of various vehicles in comparison, numerical values according to Agora Road Transportation (2019) climate balance of electric cars, adapted to the deviant battery capacities of the BEV considered here. The entire lifecycle of the vehicles was taken into account in a life rate of 150.000 km.
Battery change stations
The required infrastructure in the form of battery change stations is produced with comparatively little effort, since it is always needed for a very small part of the BEV and it is only occupied for a short time. Suitable technique has been available for a long time (FA. Better Place, Tesla, NIO) and can be advantageously integrated into the power supply network. However, the vast majority of charging operations is done as before about normal BEV charging points.
There are investigations that show that an optimized mode of operation under commercial use of your network stabilizing function can be operated economically and are possible for customers acceptable fees.
It can be shown that the bond regime for the additional batteries can be designed by using pfandkarten based on an anonymized smart card so that it is comfortable and financeable and the privacy is strictly adhered to.
Comparison of different battery technologies
About the author: Steffen Schmidt is a diploma engineer for electrical engineering and was a long time as a development engineer and designer in industry in a company that provides manufacturing machinery and associated automation technology for the automotive industry. His area of responsibility included the overall design of the electrical equipment of these machines and the specialty of electric drives. Now he is retired.
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